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Diabetes Center

Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes treatment
Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated very successfully.  The main aim of treatment of both diabetes type 1 ad diabetes type 2 is to achieve as near to normal levels of blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol as possible. This, together with a healthy lifestyle, will help to improve wellbeing and protect against long-term damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and major arteries.  People with diabetes can manage the condition with meal planning, physical activity, and, if needed, medications.

Furthermore, diabetes is a serious disease that affects almost every part of the body. That is why a team of people may help you take care of your diabetes.  Consider consulting the following specialists as you begin to manage and care for diabetes.

  • Dentist
  • Diabetes educators
  • Dietitian
  • Doctors
  • Eye doctor
  • Family doctor
  • Foot doctor (orthopaedic or vascular surgeon)
  • Internal medicine specialist (subspecialty= diabetologist or nephrologist)
  • Mental health professional
  • Neurologist
  • Nurse or nurse practitioner
  • Nutritionist
  • Pharmacist
  • Social worker

Diet
Healthful eating helps keep your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, in your target range. Use your diabetes meal plan to target your blood glucose and weight levels. If you do not have one, ask your doctor to help you create a meal plan. You can take good care of yourself and your diabetes by learning

  • What to eat
  • When to eat
  • How much to eat

As a general guide, eat healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, fish, lean meats, chicken or turkey without the skin, dry peas or beans, whole grains, and low-fat or skim milk and cheese.  Bake, broil, or grill meat and be sure to keep fish and lean meat and poultry portion to about 3 ounces.  Eat foods that have less fat and salt. Finally, eat foods with more fiber such as whole grains cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta.

Exercise
Physical activity is an important part of staying healthy and controlling your blood glucose.Talk with your doctor about what types of exercise are safe for you.  Get 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity on most days of the week. Brisk walking is a great way to move more. Always wear your medical identification or other ID. Find an exercise buddy. Many people find they are more likely to do something active if a friend joins them.

Lifestyle
Stress can raise your blood glucose. While it is hard to remove stress from your life, you can learn to handle it. Ask for help if you feel down. A mental health professional, support group, member of the clergy, friend, or family member who will listen to your concerns may help you feel better.  Stop smoking or ask for help to quit.  Also, you can consider abstaining totally from alcohol, as it raises blood sugar.

Medication
Diabetes medicines help keep your blood glucose in your target range suggested by diabetes experts and your doctor.  Diabetes medicines come in several forms.  Taking more than one diabetes drug is sometimes necessary. Many people with diabetes do not get enough blood sugar control from one medicine. Two or more may be necessary.  Take your diabetes medicines as prescribed even when you feel good. Ask your doctor if you need aspirin to prevent a heart attack or stroke. Tell your doctor if you cannot afford your medicines or if you have any side effects.  The most common types of medications include:

Insulin - Insulin is used for all types of diabetes. Your doctor can help you decide which way of taking insulin is best for you.  Insulin is administered via injection, pump, or jet injector.

Oral antidiabetics (for type 2 diabetes) - Medications that a prescribed by your doctor might include Metformin, Glipizide, or Glimepiride.  Take as prescribed.

Prevention
Check your blood glucose regularly. You may want to test your blood sugar levels one or more times a day with a home-self-glucometer with sticks. Be sure to take this written or electronical record to your doctor visits. Also, check your feet every day for cuts, blisters, red spots, and swelling. Call your doctor right away about any sores that do not go away.  Check your blood pressure if your doctor advises and report any changes in your eyesight to your doctor. An eye doctor should check your eye fundus on a regular basis using ophthalmoscopy or fundoscopy procedures, and perform laser corrections if necessary. 

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