Over the last 50-75 years, the incidence of asthma in industrialized countries has steadily increased, especially among children, to alarming proportions. Scientists around the world are studying this epidemic, as well as researching the long-term effects of taking anti-asthma drugs such as bronchodilators. In china, research on the efficacy of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the treatment of asthma shows that traditional chinese medicine compares favorably with standard western treatment, and provides an alternative approach for those who want to strengthen their bodiesânatural defenses and avoid the long-term use of drugs.
Asthma is an immune-system-related respiratory disorder in which the breathing passages become narrow or blocked, and are typically inflamed. Asthma can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic asthma is caused by an allergic reaction to a foreign substance (called an allergen) such as pollen, animal dander, animal fur, dust, mold, food additives, or feather pillows, and it is strongly seasonal. Intrinsic asthma is a non-seasonal, non-allergic type of asthma. Trigger factors for intrinsic asthma attacks include air pollutants, tobacco smoke, strong odors, cold weather, physical exertion, emotional stress, or temperature or humidity changes. Often, an episode of intrinsic asthma will follow a severe respiratory infection.
Asthma in chinese medicine
in traditional chinese medicine theory, asthma is clearly differentiated between the actual attacks and the periods between attacks. When the attacks are happening, this is considered to be an acute, excess condition, and the objective is to disperse the excess and stop the attack. Wind, a non-substantial pathogenic factor, lodges in the bronchi and combines with cold or heat pathogenic factors to cause bronchospasms.
Between attacks, the body is considered to be in a deficiency condition. The lungs and kidneys work together to produce wei qi, or defensive chi. Defensive chi can be thought of as analogous to the immune system. It is a yang energy that is manufactured from the food we eat. The kidneys are the root of our ability to produce defensive chi, and the lungs spread defensive chi near the outer surface of our bodies to ward off pathogenic factors like wind, cold, and heat. When the lungs or kidneys (or both) are weak, there is often a deficiency of defensive chi, making us more vulnerable to colds, infections, asthma attacks, etc. It is thought that a personâs defensive chi can be weak due to a hereditary constitutional weakness (up to 75% of children with asthma have a family history of the disorder); but mothers who smoke during pregnancy and childhood immunizations are also cited as contributing factors in asthma.
Acupuncture can have a remarkable effect in stopping an acute asthma attack. Many patients experience immediate relief after an acupuncture treatment, feeling that the airway blockage was simply removed. Because bronchospasms result from over-stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, some traditional acupuncture points for calming the spirit are widely used for asthma. Stimulation of these points can relieve both physical and emotional stress, possibly because they trigger the release of neurotransmitters in the brain. The patient can therefore experience both a physical release from his bronchial constriction, and also an emotional or psychological release from the fear of constriction and suffocation.
In chinese philosophy, and in chinese medicine, man is seen as an integral part of nature. The fact that allergen-induced asthma attacks are strongly seasonal, with the most devastating attacks occurring in winter and spring, leads chinese medicine practitioners to coordinate their treatment of asthma sufferers with the seasons. In the winter and spring, during attacks, the emphasis is on dispersing the pathogenic factors of wind, cold, and heat. In the summer, attention is turned to tonifying the deficiency condition of the lungs and kidneys, and stimulating the body to increase its reserves of defensive chi. Because summer is the most yang time of the year, the energy of the season is used to build up the bodyâs supply of yang energy.
scientific studies in china and elsewhere show that the ancient chinese medicine theories have a basis in scientific fact. The whole scope of traditional chinese medicine is an elaborate and elegant construct which canât be scientifically proven in its entirety, but modern research reveals a number of mechanisms that support the ancient healing arts:
neuro-regulation of air passages. Researchers at nanjing university of traditional chinese medicine found that relieving asthma attacks by acupuncture is closely related to neuro-regulation of air passages. They further found that sympathetic nerve excitement and diastolization of the smooth muscle of the bronchial tubes can be achieved by stimulating acupuncture points on the back. The systaltic function of the smooth muscles of the airways is regulated through the neuroendocrine center of the hypothalamus, and this function can be measurably affected by needling certain back shu points.
Serum camp and camp/cgmp. Levels of certain substances in the blood called cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cgmp) seem to have a bearing on asthma patients. Asthma patients experiencing wheezing and breathlessness have lower serum levels of camp and camp/cgmp. Many clinical studies conducted in china found that acupuncture can increase the levels of serum camp and camp/cgmp.
Rbc-cr1r. Red blood cells have the function of transporting oxygen to body tissues, and also aid in immunoabsorption. In traditional chinese medicine, the kidneys have the function of generating and controlling bone growth, storing our genetic essence, generating bone marrow, and aiding in the production of blood. Kidney deficiency in traditional chinese medicine and low red blood cell counts in conventional medicine are related. Research in hangzhou red cross hospital shows that the immunological index of red blood cells (rbc-cr1r) was markedly increased after optimum-timing acupuncture treatment for kidney deficiency, compared with the control group.
Acidocyte regulation. An acidocyte is a type of white blood cell. An increase in acidocyte levels indicates allergic reaction in an organism. A clinical study at the affiliated yueyang hospital of shanghai university of traditional chinese medicine shows that acupuncture at ub13 (fei shu), lu5 (chi ze), lu7 (lie que), st40 (feng long), ren 22 (tian tu), and extra point ding chuan can decrease acidocyte levels.
17-hydroxy corticosteroid in urine. Traditional chinese medicine believes that there exists a correlation between asthma and the pattern of kidney deficiency. Clinical observations reveal that asthma patients tend to have lower levels of the hormone 17-hydroxy corticosteroid in their urine, which is closely related to kidney deficiency in chinese medicine. Many clinical studies show that acupuncture can increase the level of 17-hydroxy corticosteroid in urine.
Regulate hypophalmus-pituitary-adrenocortical function. It is believed that asthma attacks are correlated with a lower hypophalmus-pituitary-adrenocortical function. Clinical research found that tonifying the kidneys with acupuncture and chinese herbal medicine can improve that function and relieve asthma attacks.