what does this mean? minimal anterior compression deformity of the t10 vertebrae body with associated neophyte formation?
It means that the front aspect of the T10 vertebral body has been pushed down or compressed some. The rest of the vertebral body is okay. There is no other deformity of the vertebra, it has not burst or shifted in any way.
I think you mean osteophyte formation. An osteophyte is essentially a bone spur. These are signs of a degenerative process.
So, the two together, probably means that the compression of the vertebral body is not new. That is occured a while ago.
Compression of the anterior part of the body can be caused from a flexion injury to the spine or due from weakening of the bone by osteoporosis.
Since it is listed as "minimal" it is probably not even large enough to measure in terms of an angle or percentage of the body's height.