So, so many. You can find most of the effects on reputable medical websites, but everyone is different.
The main difference in men and women is that women can have changes to their menstrual cycle. Their periods can get very light (or even stop). It can also cause fertility problems. Other than that, the symptoms are pretty much the same for men and women.
The effects should go away or at least vastly improve once effective treatment is started. However, it can sometimes take time to get the dosage right. There is too much information on this topic (and too many potential effects) to put it all here. Do a search for hyperthyroidism, talk to your doctor, and pay attention to your own body. Not everyone gets every side-effect and the severity also varies from person to person.